Mitochondria in IVF
Mitochondria play a vital role in oocyte functions and they are critical an indicator of oocyte quality. It is important for fertilization and development into viable offspring. Quality-compromised oocytes are correlated with infertility, developmental disorders, reduced blastocyst cell number and embryo loss in these mitochondrial dysfunctions plays a significant role. Increasingly, women affected with metabolic disorders such as diabetes or obesity and oocyte aging are seeking treatment in IVF clinics to overcome the adverse effect of metabolic conditions on mitochondrial functions and a new treatments have become available to restore oocyte quality. The past decade has seen enormous advances in potential therapies to restore oocyte quality and it includes dietary components and transfer of mitochondria from cells with mitochondrial integrity into mitochondria impaired oocytes. New technologies has opened up new possibilities for therapeutic advances which will increase the success rates for IVF of oocytes from women with compromised oocyte quality. Among this, the major mitochondrial functions is the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to provide energy. Compared to mitochondria in somatic cells, relatively little is known about mitochondria in oocytes and in the preimplantation embryo but it is well known that the mitochondrial dysfunction in the oocyte and an embryo play significant roles in infertility and in developmental abnormalities.